Ten fire engines and around 80 firefighters tackled a roof fire in a block of flats on Hadleigh Close in Bethnal Green.
The roof of the building was destroyed in the blaze.
Station Commander Paul Morgan, who was at the scene, said:
“Brigade Control took twenty-five 999 calls to the visible blaze. One of those callers was trapped inside the property and unable to escape due to fire, heat and smoke. They were given vital fire survival guidance information before fire crews arrived. Two women were rescued from a fourth floor flat via a 13.5 metre ladder.
“A man and a woman were also rescued by firefighters via an internal staircase. The man was taken to hospital as a precaution by London Ambulance Service crews.
“Two adults and a child left the flat where the fire is believed to have started before firefighters arrived. Over 100 residents self evacuated from the property.”
Thirty flats have been affected by the blaze and the local housing agency is working to rehouse residents.
The Brigade was called at 3.28am and the fire was under control by 5.39am. Firefighters from Bethnal Green, Whitechapel, Shadwell, Shoreditch, Dowgate, Homerton, Soho, Islington and Stratford fire stations were at the scene.
The cause of the fire is under investigation by the Brigade and the Metropolitan Police Service.